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Analogies And Theories

Analogies And Theories
Author: Itzhak Gilboa
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198738021
Size: 62.96 MB
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The book deals with the way economic agents reason about uncertainty. It is thus at the foundations of economic theory, touching upon general issues that are common also to statistics, philosophy, psychology, and artificial intelligence. Two modes of reasoning are at the heart of the discussion: reasoning by general rules, or theories, and reasoning by analogies to specific cases. The book offers mathematical models of each type of reasoning, and a unifiedmodel that captures both, in a way that allows a formal analysis of modes of reasoning and their evolution.
Analogies and Theories
Language: en
Pages: 160
Authors: Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, David Schmeidler
Categories: Business & Economics
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-05-14 - Publisher: OUP Oxford
The book describes formal models of reasoning that are aimed at capturing the way that economic agents, and decision makers in general think about their environment and make predictions based on their past experience. The focus is on analogies (case-based reasoning) and general theories (rule-based reasoning), and on the interaction between them, as well as between them and Bayesian reasoning. A unified approach allows one to study the dynamics of inductive reasoning in terms of the mode of reasoning that is used to generate predictions.
Metaphors of Genre
Language: en
Authors: David Fishelov
Categories: Literary Criticism
Type: BOOK - Published: 2010-11-01 - Publisher: Penn State Press
Books about Metaphors of Genre
Forces and Fields
Language: en
Pages: 332
Authors: Mary B. Hesse
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 1962-06-11 - Publisher: Kensington Publishing Corp.
Forces and Fields by Mary Hesse is a history of physics surrounding the question: "How do bodies act on one another across space?" Hesse illustrates this through various answers, discussing period of transition in fundamental physics in which new concepts and ideas have been introduced and made scientifically testable, and makes a certain philosophical interpretation of science from the beginning. Some topics include the logical status of theories, primitive analogies, mechanism in Greek science, the Greek inheritance, Corpuscular Philosophy, The Theory of Gravitation and The Theory of Relativity, as well as others. Mary B. Hesse (born 1924) is a contemporary English philosopher of science. She is now professor emerita of the philosophy of science at Cambridge University. Her publication Models and Analogies in Science is a widely cited and accessible introduction to the topic. Hesse argues, contra Duhem, that models and analogies are integral to understanding scientific practice in general and scientific advancement in particular, especially how the domain of a scientific theory is extended and how theories generate genuinely novel predictions. Examples of such models include the famous billiard ball model of the dynamical theory of gases and models of light based on analogies to sound and water waves.
Publications de L'Institut Matheḿatique
Language: en
Authors: Matematički institut (Belgrade, Serbia)
Categories: Mathematics
Type: BOOK - Published: 1984 - Publisher:
Books about Publications de L'Institut Matheḿatique
Knowledge Representation and Metaphor
Language: en
Pages: 272
Authors: E. Cornell Way
Categories: Computers
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013-03-14 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychol ogy through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The problems posed by metaphor and analogy are among the most challenging that confront the field of knowledge representation. In this study, Eileen Way has drawn upon the combined resources of philosophy, psychology, and computer science in developing a systematic and illuminating theoretical framework for understanding metaphors and analogies. While her work provides solutions to difficult problems of knowledge representation, it goes much further by investigating some of the most important philosophical assumptions that prevail within artificial intelligence today. By exposing the limitations inherent in the assumption that languages are both literal
IR Theory, Historical Analogy, and Major Power War
Language: en
Pages: 339
Authors: Hall Gardner
Categories: Political Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-12-21 - Publisher: Springer
This book critically examines elements of America-First nationalism, neo-conservatism, neo-realism, neo-liberalism, environmental theories, and social constructionism by way of developing an “alternative realist” approach to the study of the origins of major power war. The author critiques concepts of “polarity” and “sovereign” decision making and diplomacy before developing the concept of “highly uneven polycentrism.” The book then develops a unique comparative historical approach that seeks to compare and contrast the pre-World War I, pre-World War II, and Cold War eras with the contemporary post-Cold War period. It is argued that the US, as it remains the leading global hegemon, must fully engage in multilateral diplomacy with major friends and rivals alike in the establishment of differing forms of power sharing and joint sovereignty accords—in order to prevent the global system from polarizing into two contending alliances more reminiscent of both the pre-World War I and pre-World War II periods than the “new Cold War.”
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien
Language: de
Pages: 374
Authors: Pierre Duhem
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 1998-01-01 - Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) gehörte zu jenen Wissenschaftlern, die im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert an der Umbildung der Physik im großen Stil arbeiteten und damit an der Vorbereitung der wissenschaftlichen Revolution beteiligt waren, die durch Planck und Einstein herbeigeführt wurde. Duhems klassisches Werk der modernen Wissenschaftstheorie hat auf die Entwicklung des logischen Empirismus nachhaltigen Einfluß ausgeübt. Das von Duhem beigezogene reichhaltige Material und seine konzisen Fallstudien stellen eine Fundgrube für jeden dar, der sich ernsthaft mit Wissenschaftstheorie beschäftigt.
Multiple Analogies in Science and Philosophy
Language: en
Pages: 167
Authors: Cameron Shelley
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines
Type: BOOK - Published: 2003-01-01 - Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
A multiple analogy is a structured comparison in which several sources are likened to a target. In "Multiple analogies in science and philosophy," Shelley provides a thorough account of the cognitive representations and processes that participate in multiple analogy formation. Through analysis of real examples taken from the fields of evolutionary biology, archaeology, and Plato's "Republic," Shelley argues that multiple analogies are not simply concatenated single analogies but are instead the general form of analogical inference, of which single analogies are a special case. The result is a truly general cognitive model of analogical inference.Shelley also shows how a cognitive account of multiple analogies addresses important philosophical issues such as the confidence that one may have in an analogical explanation, and the role of analogy in science and philosophy.This book lucidly demonstrates that important questions regarding analogical inference cannot be answered adequately by consideration of single analogies alone.
Current Perspectives in Social Psychology
Language: en
Pages: 557
Authors: Edwin Paul Hollander, Raymond George Hunt
Categories: Social psychology
Type: BOOK - Published: 1963 - Publisher:
Books about Current Perspectives in Social Psychology
An Aesthetic Theory for Metaphor
Language: en
Pages: 380
Authors: Surekha Gillian Parker
Categories: Social psychology
Type: BOOK - Published: 1994 - Publisher:
Books about An Aesthetic Theory for Metaphor