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Cavity Optomechanics At Millikelvin Temperatures

Cavity Optomechanics At Millikelvin Temperatures
Author: Sean Michael Meenehan
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The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high mechanical frequency of these systems allows for the possibility of using a dilution refrigerator to simultaneously achieve low thermal occupancy and long mechanical coherence time by passively cooling the device to the millikelvin regime. This thesis describes efforts to realize the measurement of OMC cavities inside a dilution refrigerator, including the development of fridge-compatible optical coupling schemes and the characterization of the heating dynamics of the mechanical resonator at sub-kelvin temperatures. We will begin by summarizing the theoretical framework used to describe cavity optomechanical systems, as well as a handful of the quantum applications envisioned for such devices. Then, we will present background on the design of the nanobeam OMC cavities used for this work, along with details of the design and characterization of tapered fiber couplers for optical coupling inside the fridge. Finally, we will present measurements of the devices at fridge base temperatures of Tf = 10 mK, using both heterodyne spectroscopy and time-resolved sideband photon counting, as well as detailed analysis of the prospects for future quantum applications based on the observed optically-induced heating.
Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures
Language: en
Pages: 266
Authors: Sean Michael Meenehan, California Institute of Technology. Division of Engineering and Applied Science
Categories: Electronic dissertations
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015 - Publisher:
The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits
Quantum Optomechanics
Language: en
Pages: 358
Authors: Warwick P. Bowen, Gerard J. Milburn
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-11-18 - Publisher: CRC Press
Written by leading experimentalist Warwick P. Bowen and prominent theoretician Gerard J. Milburn, Quantum Optomechanics discusses modern developments in this novel field from experimental and theoretical standpoints. The authors share their insight on a range of important topics, including optomechanical cooling and entanglement; quantum limits on measurement precision and how to overcome them via back-action evading measurements; feedback control; single photon and nonlinear optomechanics; optomechanical synchronization; coupling of optomechanical systems to microwave circuits and two-level systems, such as atoms and superconducting qubits; and optomechanical tests of gravitational decoherence. The book first introduces the basic physics of quantum harmonic oscillators and their interactions with their environment. It next discusses the radiation pressure interaction between light and matter, deriving common Hamiltonians used in quantum optomechanics. It then focuses on the linearized regime of quantum optomechanics before exploring scenarios where the simple linearized picture of quantum optomechanics no longer holds. The authors move on to hybrid optomechanical systems in which the canonical quantum optomechanical system is coupled to another quantum object. They explain how an alternative form of a hybrid optomechanical system leads to the phenomenon of synchronization. They also consider the impact of quantum optomechanics on tests of gravitational physics.
Probing Two-Dimensional Quantum Fluids with Cavity Optomechanics
Language: en
Pages: 147
Authors: Yauhen Sachkou
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2020-07-17 - Publisher: Springer Nature
Superfluid helium is a quantum liquid that exhibits a range of counter-intuitive phenomena such as frictionless flow. Quantized vortices are a particularly important feature of superfluid helium, and all superfluids, characterized by a circulation that can only take prescribed integer values. However, the strong interactions between atoms in superfluid helium prohibit quantitative theory of vortex behaviour. Experiments have similarly not been able to observe coherent vortex dynamics. This thesis resolves this challenge, bringing microphotonic techniques to bear on two-dimensional superfluid helium, observing coherent vortex dynamics for the first time, and achieving this on a silicon chip. This represents a major scientific contribution, as it opens the door not only to providing a better understanding of this esoteric quantum state of matter, but also to building new quantum technologies based upon it, and to understanding the dynamics of astrophysical superfluids such as those thought to exist in the core of neutron stars.
Quantum Opto-Mechanics with Micromirrors
Language: en
Pages: 144
Authors: Simon Gröblacher
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-12-16 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Quantum effects in macroscopic systems have long been a fascination for researchers. Over the past decade mechanical oscillators have emerged as a leading system of choice for many such experiments. The work reported in this thesis investigates the effects of the radiation-pressure force of light on macroscopic mechanical structures. The basic system studied is a mechanical oscillator that is highly reflective and part of an optical resonator. It interacts with the optical cavity mode via the radiation-pressure force. Both the dynamics of the mechanical oscillation and the properties of the light field are modified through this interaction. The experiments use quantum optical tools (such as homodyning and down-conversion) with the goal of ultimately showing quantum behavior of the mechanical center of mass motion. Of particular value are the detailed descriptions of several novel experiments that pave the way towards this goal and are already shaping the field of quantum optomechanics, in particular optomechanical laser cooling and strong optomechanical coupling.
Progress in Optics
Language: en
Pages: 646
Authors: Simon Gröblacher
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-06-14 - Publisher: Academic Press
The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviews Edited by the leading authority in the field
Progress in Optics
Language: en
Pages: 422
Authors: Taco Visser
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2016-04-08 - Publisher: Academic Press
The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviews Edited by the leading authority in the field
Superconducting Devices in Quantum Optics
Language: en
Pages: 249
Authors: Robert Hadfield, Göran Johansson
Categories: Computers
Type: BOOK - Published: 2016-02-29 - Publisher: Springer
This book presents the basics and applications of superconducting devices in quantum optics. Over the past decade, superconducting devices have risen to prominence in the arena of quantum optics and quantum information processing. Superconducting detectors provide unparalleled performance for the detection of infrared photons in quantum cryptography, enable fundamental advances in quantum optics, and provide a direct route to on-chip optical quantum information processing. Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions provide a blueprint for scalable quantum information processing as well as opening up a new regime for quantum optics at microwave wavelengths. The new field of quantum acoustics allows the state of a superconducting qubit to be transmitted as a phonon excitation. This volume, edited by two leading researchers, provides a timely compilation of contributions from top groups worldwide across this dynamic field, anticipating future advances in this domain.
Diamond for Quantum Applications Part 2
Language: en
Pages: 272
Authors: Robert Hadfield, Göran Johansson
Categories: Technology & Engineering
Type: BOOK - Published: 2020-10-15 - Publisher: Academic Press
Diamond for Quantum Applications Part Two, Volume 104, the latest release in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on a variety of timely topics including Color center formation by deterministic single ion implantation, Diamond and Its Investigation by Advanced TEM, Fundaments of photo-electric readout of spin states in diamond, Integrated quantum photonic circuits with polycrystalline diamond, Diamond Membranes, and Diamond nanophotonic and opt mechanics. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series Updated release includes the latest information on the use of diamonds for quantum applications
A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics
Language: en
Pages: 592
Authors: Hans-A. Bachor, Timothy C. Ralph
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2019-09-23 - Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Provides fully updated coverage of new experiments in quantum optics This fully revised and expanded edition of a well-established textbook on experiments on quantum optics covers new concepts, results, procedures, and developments in state-of-the-art experiments. It starts with the basic building blocks and ideas of quantum optics, then moves on to detailed procedures and new techniques for each experiment. Focusing on metrology, communications, and quantum logic, this new edition also places more emphasis on single photon technology and hybrid detection. In addition, it offers end-of-chapter summaries and full problem sets throughout. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics, 3rd Edition presents readers with chapters on classical models of light, photons, quantum models of light, as well as basic optical components. It goes on to give readers full coverage of lasers and amplifiers, and examines numerous photodetection techniques being used today. Other chapters examine quantum noise, squeezing experiments, the application of squeezed light, and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. The book finishes with a section on quantum information before summarizing of the contents and offering an outlook on the future of the field. -Provides all new updates to the field of quantum optics, covering
Coherence and Quantum Optics VII
Language: en
Pages: 737
Authors: J.H. Eberly, L. Mandel, E. Wolf
Categories: Technology & Engineering
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013-11-11 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Seventh Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the four-day period June 7 - 10, 1996. More than 280 scientists from 33 countries participated. This book contains the Proceedings of the meeting. This Conference differed from the previous six in the series in having only a limited number of oral presentations, in order to avoid too many parallel sessions. Another new feature was the introduction of tutorial lectures. Most contributed papers were presented in poster sessions. The Conference was sponsored by the American Physical Society, by the Optical Society of America, by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and by the University of Rochester. We wish to express our appreciation to these organizations for their support and we especially extend our thanks to the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics for providing financial assistance to a number of speakers from Third World countries, to enable them to take part in the meeting.